On the continuum of drug/alcohol use, abuse, dependence (addiction/alcoholism) the requirements for identifying dependency to drugs or alcohol and/or alcohol dependency is clearly spelled out by the American Psychological Association in their Diagnostic and Analytical Manual of Mental illness (DSM-IV). The meaning is crucial to intervention with drug/alcohol abusers as it classifies violent drug/drinking habits and effect on the kind of treatment that clinical insurance will certainly cover. Reflected in the meaning is the existing study on brain chemistry. Crucial for us are the standards that are offered by these meanings so that we, in turn, can identify drug/alcohol (COMPOUND) abuse and drug/alcohol addiction (SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE).
The term drug includes alcohol and, from this point forward, alcohol is consisted of in the term “drug”. In turn, the DSM-IV makes use of the term “ELEMENT” to incorporate drugs of abuse, medication or a contaminant; for our functions we shall limit the discussion to drugs of abuse. The DSM-IV-TR (text modification of 2002) continues making use of the very same meanings as DSM-IV of 1996.
Several of the following:
FAILURE TO FULFILL MAJOR COMMITMENTS
UTILIZE WHEN PHYSICALLY HAZARDOUS
RECURRENT LEGAL PROBLEMS
REOCCURRING SOCIAL OR INTERPERSONAL PROBLEMS
With SUBSTANCE ABUSE the user has a choice: he/she utilizes in spite of prohibited, unsafe effects, or inappropriateness of the drinking/drugging experience.
SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE (ADDICTION/ALCOHOLISM).
Three or more of the following:.
BIG AMOUNTS OVER A LONG PERIOD.
UNSUCCESSFUL EFFORTS TO CUT DOWN.
TIME INVESTED IN OBTAINING THE SUBSTANCE REPLACES.
SOCIAL, OCCUPATIONAL OR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES.
CONTINUED USE DESPITE ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES.
The terms “obsession” “reliance” and “alcoholism” are interchangeable. They are defined by damaged control over substance abuse – simply puts, the question to the user is: “Did you continue to act in a manner that has previously caused issues for you?”.
The relationship with the drug ends up being primary – it resembles a consuming love affair – it ends up being the most essential relationship for the individual and all decisions made are based on the maintenance of this relationship.
This meaning has psychological and physiological qualities. Mental since the person has an obsessive fixation with the drug and physiological because of the neuro-chemical action happening in the brain.
The definition differs from the traditional meaning of dependence/addiction as it is now not essential to have the three criteria of (1) tolerance, (2) withdrawal (physical dependence) and (3) compulsion (mental dependence). These three requirements are sufficient but not required for “reliance”. With this brand-new definition “cocaine” is identified as addictive although it has no significant physical withdrawal. The DSM-IV-TR defines this by defining the following:.
With Physiological Reliance– evidence of tolerance or withdrawal.
(i.e. item # 1 or # 2 is present).
Without Physiological Dependence– no proof of tolerance or withdrawal.
(i.e. neither item # 1 nor product # 2 exists) (DSM-IV-TR p. 198.).